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  Charlotte Brontë  (April 21, 1816 – March 31, 1855) was an English novelist, the eldest of the three Brontë sisters whose novels have become enduring classics of English literature. Life and worksCharlotte Brontë was born at Thornton, in Yorkshire, England, the third of six children, to Patrick Brontë (formerly "Patrick Brunty"), an Irish Anglican clergyman, and his wife, Maria Branwell. In April 1820 the family moved to Haworth, where Patrick had been appointed Perpetual Curate. Maria Branwell Brontë died of cancer on 15 September 1821, leaving five daughters and a son to the care of her sister Elizabeth Branwell. In August 1824, Charlotte was sent with three of her sisters to the Clergy Daughters' School at Cowan Bridge in Lancashire (which she would describe as Lowood School in Jane Eyre). Its poor conditions, Charlotte maintained, permanently affected her health and physical development, and hastened the deaths of her two elder sisters, Maria (born 1814) and Elizabeth (born 1815), who died of tuberculosis in 1825 soon after they were removed from the school.


  At home in Haworth Parsonage, Charlotte and the other surviving children — Branwell, Emily, and Anne — were influenced by their father's library of Walter Scott, Byron, Tales of the Genii and The Arabian Nights. They began chronicling the lives and struggles of the inhabitants of their imaginary kingdoms. Charlotte and Branwell wrote stories about their country — Angria — and Emily and Anne wrote articles and poems about theirs — Gondal. The sagas were elaborate and convoluted (and still exist in part manuscripts) and provided them with an obsessive interest in childhood and early adolescence, which prepared them for their literary vocations in adulthood.


  Charlotte continued her education at Roe Head school in Mirfield from 1831 to 1832, where she met her lifelong friends and correspondents, Ellen Nussey and Mary Taylor. Charlotte returned as a teacher from 1835 to 1838. In 1839 she took up the first of many positions as governess to various families in Yorkshire, a career she pursued until 1841. In 1842 she and Emily travelled to Brussels to enroll in a pensionnat run by Constantin Heger (1809–1896) and his wife Claire Zoë Parent Heger (1804–1890). In return for board and tuition, Charlotte taught English and Emily taught music. Their time at the pensionnat was cut short when Elizabeth Branwell, their aunt who joined the family after the death of their mother to look after the children, died of internal obstruction in October 1842. Charlotte returned alone to Brussels in January 1843 to take up a teaching post at the pensionnat. Her second stay at the pensionnat was not a happy one; she became lonely, homesick, and deeply attached to Constantin Heger. She finally returned to Haworth in January 1844 and later used her time at the pensionnat as the inspiration for some of The Professor and Villette.


  In May 1846, Charlotte, Emily, and Anne published a joint collection of poetry under the assumed names of Currer, Ellis, and Acton Bell. Although the book failed to attract interest (only two copies were sold) the sisters decided to continue writing for publication and began work on their first novels. Charlotte continued to use the name 'Currer Bell' when she published her first two novels.


  Cover page of the first edition of Jane EyreHer novels are:


  Jane Eyre, published 1847


  Shirley, published 1849


  Villette, published 1853


  The Professor, written before Jane Eyre and rejected by many publishing houses, was published posthumously in 1857


  Her novels were deemed coarse by the critics. Much speculation took place as to who Currer Bell really was, and whether Bell was a man or a woman.


  Charlotte's brother, Branwell, the only son of the family, died of chronic bronchitis and marasmus exacerbated by heavy drinking, in September 1848, although Charlotte believed his death was due to tuberculosis. Emily and Anne both died of pulmonary tuberculosis in December 1848 and May 1849, respectively.


  Portrait of Charlotte Brontë, 1873


  Charlotte and her father were now left alone. In view of the enormous success of Jane Eyre, she was persuaded by her publisher to visit London occasionally, where she revealed her true identity and began to move in a more exalted social circle, becoming friends with Harriet Martineau, Elizabeth Gaskell, William Makepeace Thackeray and G. H. Lewes. However, she never left Haworth for more than a few weeks at a time as she did not want to leave her aging father's side.



  In June 1854, Charlotte married Arthur Bell Nicholls, her father's curate. She died nine months later during her first pregnancy. Her death certificate gives the cause of death as phthisis (tuberculosis), but there is a school of thought that suggests she may have died from her excessive vomiting caused by severe morning sickness in the early stages of pregnancy. There is also evidence to suggest that Charlotte died from typhus she may have caught from Tabitha Ackroyd, the Bronte household's oldest servant, who died shortly before her. Charlotte was interred in the family vault in The Church of St. Michael and All Angels, Haworth, West Yorkshire, England.


  The posthumous biography by Elizabeth Gaskell, for a long time a standard source on her life, has been much criticised by feminists such as Elaine Showalter, for suppressing details of Charlotte's life and her apparently passionate nature.




  在霍沃思牧师住所,夏洛特和其他幸存的孩子——布伦威尔,艾米丽,和安妮——沃尔特·斯科特受到父亲的图书馆,拜伦,鬼和天方夜谭的故事。他们开始记录居民的生活和斗争的虚构的王国。夏洛特和布伦威尔写道他们的国家的故事- Angria和艾米莉和安妮写关于他们的文章和诗歌——冈德尔岛。传说是复杂的和复杂的(和仍然存在部分手稿),为他们提供了一个痴迷的兴趣在童年和青春期的早期,他们已经准备他们在成人文学职业。


  夏洛特Mirfield罗伊头继续教育学院从1831年到1832年,在那里她遇见了她一生的朋友和记者,好友爱琳·纳西说过和玛丽婚前泰勒。夏洛特作为老师从1835年到1838年返回。1839年,她接受了许多家庭教师等职位的第一个不同家庭在约克郡,她追求事业,直到1841年。1842年,她和艾米丽前往布鲁塞尔参加pensionnat由江诗丹顿Heger(1809 - 1896)和他的妻子克莱尔佐伊父Heger(1804 - 1890)。以换取董事会和学费,夏洛特和艾米丽教英语教音乐。时间在pensionnat缩短时,伊丽莎白·布伦威尔他们加入家庭的阿姨死后他们的母亲照看孩子,死于1842年10月内部阻塞。夏洛特独自回到布鲁塞尔1843年1月在pensionnat教学岗位。她第二次呆在pensionnat不是一个快乐的,她变得孤独,想家,江诗丹顿Heger深深打动。她终于回到霍沃思在1844年1月,后来她在pensionnat作为灵感用于一些教授和维莱特。