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简爱作者夏洛蒂·勃朗特中英文简介

admin 2019-06-19 10:44:52 励志人物 28 ℃

夏洛蒂·勃朗简介



  Charlotte Brontë  (April 21, 1816 – March 31, 1855) was an English novelist, the eldest of the three Brontë sisters whose novels have become enduring classics of English literature. Life and worksCharlotte Brontë was born at Thornton, in Yorkshire, England, the third of six children, to Patrick Brontë (formerly "Patrick Brunty"), an Irish Anglican clergyman, and his wife, Maria Branwell. In April 1820 the family moved to Haworth, where Patrick had been appointed Perpetual Curate. Maria Branwell Brontë died of cancer on 15 September 1821, leaving five daughters and a son to the care of her sister Elizabeth Branwell. In August 1824, Charlotte was sent with three of her sisters to the Clergy Daughters' School at Cowan Bridge in Lancashire (which she would describe as Lowood School in Jane Eyre). Its poor conditions, Charlotte maintained, permanently affected her health and physical development, and hastened the deaths of her two elder sisters, Maria (born 1814) and Elizabeth (born 1815), who died of tuberculosis in 1825 soon after they were removed from the school.

  

  At home in Haworth Parsonage, Charlotte and the other surviving children — Branwell, Emily, and Anne — were influenced by their father's library of Walter Scott, Byron, Tales of the Genii and The Arabian Nights. They began chronicling the lives and struggles of the inhabitants of their imaginary kingdoms. Charlotte and Branwell wrote stories about their country — Angria — and Emily and Anne wrote articles and poems about theirs — Gondal. The sagas were elaborate and convoluted (and still exist in part manuscripts) and provided them with an obsessive interest in childhood and early adolescence, which prepared them for their literary vocations in adulthood.

  

  Charlotte continued her education at Roe Head school in Mirfield from 1831 to 1832, where she met her lifelong friends and correspondents, Ellen Nussey and Mary Taylor. Charlotte returned as a teacher from 1835 to 1838. In 1839 she took up the first of many positions as governess to various families in Yorkshire, a career she pursued until 1841. In 1842 she and Emily travelled to Brussels to enroll in a pensionnat run by Constantin Heger (1809–1896) and his wife Claire Zoë Parent Heger (1804–1890). In return for board and tuition, Charlotte taught English and Emily taught music. Their time at the pensionnat was cut short when Elizabeth Branwell, their aunt who joined the family after the death of their mother to look after the children, died of internal obstruction in October 1842. Charlotte returned alone to Brussels in January 1843 to take up a teaching post at the pensionnat. Her second stay at the pensionnat was not a happy one; she became lonely, homesick, and deeply attached to Constantin Heger. She finally returned to Haworth in January 1844 and later used her time at the pensionnat as the inspiration for some of The Professor and Villette.

  

  In May 1846, Charlotte, Emily, and Anne published a joint collection of poetry under the assumed names of Currer, Ellis, and Acton Bell. Although the book failed to attract interest (only two copies were sold) the sisters decided to continue writing for publication and began work on their first novels. Charlotte continued to use the name 'Currer Bell' when she published her first two novels.

  

  Cover page of the first edition of Jane EyreHer novels are:

  

  Jane Eyre, published 1847

  

  Shirley, published 1849

  

  Villette, published 1853

  

  The Professor, written before Jane Eyre and rejected by many publishing houses, was published posthumously in 1857

  

  Her novels were deemed coarse by the critics. Much speculation took place as to who Currer Bell really was, and whether Bell was a man or a woman.

  

  Charlotte's brother, Branwell, the only son of the family, died of chronic bronchitis and marasmus exacerbated by heavy drinking, in September 1848, although Charlotte believed his death was due to tuberculosis. Emily and Anne both died of pulmonary tuberculosis in December 1848 and May 1849, respectively.

  

  Portrait of Charlotte Brontë, 1873

  

  Charlotte and her father were now left alone. In view of the enormous success of Jane Eyre, she was persuaded by her publisher to visit London occasionally, where she revealed her true identity and began to move in a more exalted social circle, becoming friends with Harriet Martineau, Elizabeth Gaskell, William Makepeace Thackeray and G. H. Lewes. However, she never left Haworth for more than a few weeks at a time as she did not want to leave her aging father's side.

  

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  In June 1854, Charlotte married Arthur Bell Nicholls, her father's curate. She died nine months later during her first pregnancy. Her death certificate gives the cause of death as phthisis (tuberculosis), but there is a school of thought that suggests she may have died from her excessive vomiting caused by severe morning sickness in the early stages of pregnancy. There is also evidence to suggest that Charlotte died from typhus she may have caught from Tabitha Ackroyd, the Bronte household's oldest servant, who died shortly before her. Charlotte was interred in the family vault in The Church of St. Michael and All Angels, Haworth, West Yorkshire, England.

  

  The posthumous biography by Elizabeth Gaskell, for a long time a standard source on her life, has been much criticised by feminists such as Elaine Showalter, for suppressing details of Charlotte's life and her apparently passionate nature.

  

  夏洛蒂·勃朗特(1816年4月21日—1816年3月31日)是英国小说家,勃朗特三姐妹中的老大的小说已经成为英国文学的不朽的经典。生活和worksCharlotte勃朗特在桑顿,出生于约克郡,英格兰,六个孩子的第三,帕特里克•勃朗特(原名“帕特里克Brunty”),爱尔兰圣公会牧师和他的妻子玛丽亚布伦威尔。1820年4月,全家搬到了霍沃思,帕特里克被任命为永恒的副牧师。玛丽亚·布伦威尔·勃朗特1821年9月15日死于癌症,留下五个女儿和一个儿子,照顾她的妹妹伊丽莎白布伦威尔。1824年8月,夏洛特和她的三个姐妹被神职人员女儿的学校在考恩桥在兰开夏郡(她会描述为简·爱的罗沃德学校)。环境不佳,夏洛特,永久地影响了她的健康和身体发育,加速了她的两个姐姐的死亡,玛丽亚(生于1814年)和伊丽莎白(生于1815年),他于1825年死于肺结核后不久,他们从学校中删除。

  

  在霍沃思牧师住所,夏洛特和其他幸存的孩子——布伦威尔,艾米丽,和安妮——沃尔特·斯科特受到父亲的图书馆,拜伦,鬼和天方夜谭的故事。他们开始记录居民的生活和斗争的虚构的王国。夏洛特和布伦威尔写道他们的国家的故事- Angria和艾米莉和安妮写关于他们的文章和诗歌——冈德尔岛。传说是复杂的和复杂的(和仍然存在部分手稿),为他们提供了一个痴迷的兴趣在童年和青春期的早期,他们已经准备他们在成人文学职业。

  

  夏洛特Mirfield罗伊头继续教育学院从1831年到1832年,在那里她遇见了她一生的朋友和记者,好友爱琳·纳西说过和玛丽婚前泰勒。夏洛特作为老师从1835年到1838年返回。1839年,她接受了许多家庭教师等职位的第一个不同家庭在约克郡,她追求事业,直到1841年。1842年,她和艾米丽前往布鲁塞尔参加pensionnat由江诗丹顿Heger(1809 - 1896)和他的妻子克莱尔佐伊父Heger(1804 - 1890)。以换取董事会和学费,夏洛特和艾米丽教英语教音乐。时间在pensionnat缩短时,伊丽莎白·布伦威尔他们加入家庭的阿姨死后他们的母亲照看孩子,死于1842年10月内部阻塞。夏洛特独自回到布鲁塞尔1843年1月在pensionnat教学岗位。她第二次呆在pensionnat不是一个快乐的,她变得孤独,想家,江诗丹顿Heger深深打动。她终于回到霍沃思在1844年1月,后来她在pensionnat作为灵感用于一些教授和维莱特。

  

  1846年5月,夏洛特,艾米莉和安妮联合发表的诗歌背后的假设名称下,埃利斯和阿克顿贝尔。虽然这本书没有吸引兴趣(只卖出了两份)姐妹决定继续写作出版并开始工作第一本小说。夏洛特继续使用这个名字的背后,当她出版了她的第两部小说。

  

  简EyreHer小说的第一版的封面页:

  

  《简爱》,1847年出版

  

  雪莉,1849年出版

  

  维莱特,1853年出版

  

  教授,写过《简爱》,拒绝了很多出版社,出版在1857年死后

  

  她的小说被认为粗的批评。很多猜测发生背后到底是谁,以及是否贝尔是一个男人或女人。

  

  夏洛特的弟弟,布伦威尔,家庭的唯一的儿子,死于慢性支气管炎和消瘦症因酗酒而加剧,1848年9月,虽然夏洛特认为他的死是由于肺结核。艾米莉和安妮都死于肺结核的1848年12月和1849年5月,分别。

  

  夏洛蒂·勃朗特的画像,1873年

  

  夏洛特和她的父亲现在独处。《简爱》的巨大成功,她被她说服出版商偶尔访问伦敦,在那里她透露她的真实身份,开始朝着一个更尊贵的社交圈子,与哈丽特Martineau成为朋友,伊丽莎白·盖斯凯尔威廉·萨克雷和g·h·刘易斯雷先生致敬。然而,她从未离开过霍沃思超过几周时间了,她不想离开她衰老的父亲身边。

  

  1854年6月,阿瑟·贝尔尼科尔斯夏洛特结婚了她父亲的助理牧师。她在她第一次怀孕9个月后去世。她的死亡证明给死因肺结核(肺结核),但有一种思想学派,表明她可能死于过度引起的呕吐严重害喜在怀孕的早期阶段。也有证据表明,夏洛特死于斑疹伤寒她可能被从塔比瑟阿克罗伊德是勃朗特家庭最古老的仆人,前不久她去世。夏洛特是埋葬在家族在圣迈克尔教堂拱顶和所有天使,霍沃思,英格兰西约克郡。

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